Ulundi BattlefieldEnquire Now
+27 35 870 2051 www.heritagekzn.co.za
In 1877, a new British High Commissioner, Sir Bartle Frere, arrived in Cape Town with instructions to mould South Africa into a confederation. Viewing the independent kingdom of Zululand as a threat, he used a minor border incident as an excuse to demand that King Cetshwayo dismantle the Zulu army.
This ultimatum was presented to Cetshwayo’s representatives in December 1878. One month later, when Cetshwayo failed to comply, the British army invaded, commanded by Lord Chelmsford, who expected a quick and easy campaign. However, on 22 January 1879, the British advance suffered a humiliating defeat at the Battle of Isandlwana and retreated.
The second invasion commenced in late June, with Lord Chelmsford again commanding the main army which marched from Dundee towards Cetshwayo’s royal kraal, Ondini, at Ulundi. They marched slowly, scouting the terrain, building forts and torching Zulu homesteads. King Cetshwayo sent several emissaries suing for peace, but Chelmsford wasn’t interested, determined to avenge the humiliation of Isandlwana.
On 1 July, the British reached the White Umfolozi, where they set up camp, building a small stone redoubt, now known as Fort Nolela. Across the river lay Cetshwayo’s royal kraal, called Ondini, ‘the great place’. On 4 July, after an early breakfast, Chelmsford left Fort Nolela with 5 000 men. Once across the river, they shuffled across the plain in a huge hollow square, with Gatling machine guns and artillery deployed at regular intervals. The Zulu army of 20 000 was commanded by Prince Ziwedu.
Having surreptitiously encircled the square, the Zulus attacked at 9 a.m., beating their spears on their shields and chanting their war cry, ‘Usuthu’. They never managed to get close to the British, but were cut down in a hailstorm of bullets. The battle was over within an hour, leaving 1 500 Zulus dead. The British lost only 13 men. The triumphant British set fire to Cetshwayo’s kraal and marched off. The battle effectively marked the end of the independent Zulu kingdom.
The monument to the battle is beside the P700, opposite the airfield. An avenue of aloes leads to an elegant dome memorial. This is where the British formed the square which the Zulus charged with great heroism and terrible casualties. In the garden of acacia trees and aloes are the graves of the 13 British soldiers. Access is unrestricted and admission is free.
It was from the bush and grassland of northern KwaZulu-Natal that the impis of King Shaka emerged, sweeping down onto the other tribes of the hinterland and eventually engaging the British forces and shaking the very roots of the Empire. At the height of its power, the Zulu nation covered 30 000km2, but 60 years after it was first formed, its reign was over. In those 60 years, the Zulus shaped the future of the country and were engaged in battles with the Boers and the British, but these were not the only bloody conflicts in the region.
After the Zulu empire was broken, the English and the Boers fought for control of South Africa, with many battles taking place in Natal. While the best-known battles in the area are undoubtedly Isandlwana and Rorke’s Drift, as well as the siege of Ladysmith, there is fascinating history to be had at countless other ones.
The beauty of the scenery clashes harshly with the devastating past, while the rough terrain makes one wonder how the machines of war were manhandled across the country, and how the Zulu impis managed to cover such vast distances in a single day, barefoot.
The regions of Zululand and the Battlefields merge together and are hard to separate, stretching from the northern and western KwaZulu-Natal borders to the towns of Ladysmith and Colenso in the south and towards the Elephant Coast in the east.
Zululand has managed to remain largely unaffected by industrial expansion and much of it remains farmland, timber plantations and rural wilderness, including beautiful Big-Five game reserves and grasslands.
On the other hand there is the industrial hub of Richards Bay, the largest port in South Africa.
Tourism revolves around the natural beauty and diversity, as well as the haunting battlefields on which so many lost their lives and which are simply fascinating to visit, especially with a knowledgeable guide, of which there are a few.
Since this is the birthplace of the Zulu nation, it is also the place to come to grips with Zulu tradition, culture and history.
A number of cultural experiences exist, where tourists can become immersed in the local tradition and culture, learning a huge amount and enjoying themselves even more.
A few reserves in the region offer good game-viewing, from Weenen and Spioenkop in the south up to Ithala in the north. The diverse ecosystem means that hundreds of bird species are present, and a few notable bird-watching spots include the Dlinza and Ongoye forests, as well as the wetlands of Richards Bay.
An area as large and diverse will always have an almost endless array of attractions, and Zululand and the Battlefields are no different, from fishing in Richards Bay to horse-riding, mountain-biking, game-viewing and bird-watching. There is even a brewery to lighten the spirits when the history gets a little heavy.
Look out for
Zululand Brewery in Eshowe is a great place to pop in for a relaxing Zulu Blonde Export Ale, a beer that has won awards and rave reviews internationally. While you’re sitting at The Happy George Bar, ask around for recommendations on what’s new to do in the area.
The Dlinza and Ongoye Forests are serious birding hotspots and both are easily accessible. In fact, the Dlinza aerial boardwalk is something that even non-birders will enjoy and appreciate.
Isandlwana and Rorke’s Drift are the two seminal battlefields in the Battlefields tour and are both intensely fascinating and moving. A good guide is invaluable in bringing them to life. Ulundi and Blood River are also well worth visiting, giving different insights into the bloodshed that shaped this land.
Take a hike up Majuba or Spioenkop mountains, both of which offer sensational views in addition to stirring battlefield history. The historic O’Neills cottage, where a peace treaty was signed to end the first Anglo-War, lies at the base of Majuba.
The majestic Ithala Game Reserve in the very north of KwaZulu-Natal offers good game-viewing and bird-watching, as well as epic scenery of mountains and valleys. While there is a variety of accommodation, the pick of it is undoubtedly the bush camps that can be booked out for your group.
Every year the Zulu nation holds the Reed Ceremony near the eNyokeni Royal residence in Nongoma north of Melmoth, thousands of maidens gathering to pay their respect to their king. This happens in spring and visitors from all over the world come to watch the women dance and sing to King Goodwill Zwelithini in his ceremonial regalia.
The eMakhosini Ophate Heritage Park should not be missed by anyone with a sense of history. It is the birthplace of the Zulu clan and what is known as the Valley of the Kings. The Spirit of eMakhosini memorial and an educational multimedia centre are worth a visit, and there is also game, including the rare oribi antelope and black rhino.
Immerse yourself in the Zulu culture at a place like Shakaland and watch Zulu dancing, ask a sangoma (witch doctor) for his sage advice, sample traditional Zulu beer, listen to singing and perhaps try out a few simple phrases for yourself. Arts and crafts are also on sale and make wonderful gifts and souvenirs.