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Main Caves

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60km from Estcourt

-29.2807, 29.5155


+27 36 353 3718


Main Caves, in the Giant’s Castle Nature Reserve, is an ideal place for one-day visits from Pietermaritzburg for tour groups and families. It is in an area that is steeped in South African history. It was close to Main Caves that the Hlubi leader, Langalibalele, made a bid for Lesotho just over the high mountains to escape the authority of the Colonial Government in 1873.

His route can still be seen and is known as Langalibalele’s Pass. A magistrate, Joseph Millerd Orpen, was sent from the Eastern Cape in pursuit of Langalibalele to try to convince him to return to his lands and submit to Colonial authority. A young San man called Qing accompanied Orpen as a guide. On their journey they visited rock art sites in present-day Lesotho and Orpen recorded Qing’s comments on the paintings that they saw. Today, the Orpen material provides invaluable insights into the meanings of San rock art.

Main Caves is one of the most densely painted rock shelters in the Drakensberg. Two panels in the north cave have particularly interesting images: Snake Rock and Long Panel. Snake Rock is a large rock at the right of North Cave. It is so-called because of the fat, short, sinuous image at the bottom right. Snake-like images are common in San rock art and they are often depicted with antelope heads. Blood gushes from the snake’s nose in this image. It is clear that such conflated images are not meant to be realistic depictions of snakes. Rather they are associated with San religious beliefs, as can be seen by the images of dancing shamans around the serpent.

The Long Panel is a little over five metres in length, and is one of the most spectacular at Main Caves. It comprises densely painted areas where images are superimposed on some of the exceptionally large eland painted throughout the length of the panel. In San rock art most of the images are small or very small with incredible detail. On the first large eland on the left of this panel are superimposed a row of kaross-clad figures. These figures wear antelope-eared caps. Such caps were worn by ‘shamans of the game’ whose function it was to entice animals towards the waiting hunters’ bows. Elsewhere in the panel is a feline with small dots painted along the spine. The spine was considered an important part of the human anatomy for it is along here that supernatural power travels from the stomach to the head where it explodes, thereby catapulting the shaman into the spirit world. Felines were, moreover, sometimes considered to be malevolent shamans in animal form.

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Zululand & the Battlefields

KwaZulu Natal


It was from the bush and grassland of northern KwaZulu-Natal that the impis of King Shaka emerged, sweeping down onto the other tribes of the hinterland and eventually engaging the British forces and shaking the very roots of the Empire. At the height of its power, the Zulu nation covered 30 000km2, but 60 years after it was first formed, its reign was over. In those 60 years, the Zulus shaped the future of the country and were engaged in battles with the Boers and the British, but these were not the only bloody conflicts in the region. 

After the Zulu empire was broken, the English and the Boers fought for control of South Africa, with many battles taking place in Natal. While the best-known battles in the area are undoubtedly Isandlwana and Rorke’s Drift, as well as the siege of Ladysmith, there is fascinating history to be had at countless other ones. 

The beauty of the scenery clashes harshly with the devastating past, while the rough terrain makes one wonder how the machines of war were manhandled across the country, and how the Zulu impis managed to cover such vast distances in a single day, barefoot.

The regions of Zululand and the Battlefields merge together and are hard to separate, stretching from the northern and western KwaZulu-Natal borders to the towns of Ladysmith and Colenso in the south and towards the Elephant Coast in the east.

Zululand has managed to remain largely unaffected by industrial expansion and much of it remains farmland, timber plantations and rural wilderness, including beautiful Big-Five game reserves and grasslands. 

On the other hand there is the industrial hub of Richards Bay, the largest port in South Africa.

Tourism revolves around the natural beauty and diversity, as well as the haunting battlefields on which so many lost their lives and which are simply fascinating to visit, especially with a knowledgeable guide, of which there are a few.

Since this is the birthplace of the Zulu nation, it is also the place to come to grips with Zulu tradition, culture and history.

A number of cultural experiences exist, where tourists can become immersed in the local tradition and culture, learning a huge amount and enjoying themselves even more.

A few reserves in the region offer good game-viewing, from Weenen and Spioenkop in the south up to Ithala in the north. The diverse ecosystem means that hundreds of bird species are present, and a few notable bird-watching spots include the Dlinza and Ongoye forests, as well as the wetlands of Richards Bay.

An area as large and diverse will always have an almost endless array of attractions, and Zululand and the Battlefields are no different, from fishing in Richards Bay to horse-riding, mountain-biking, game-viewing and bird-watching. There is even a brewery to lighten the spirits when the history gets a little heavy.

Look out for

Zululand Brewery in Eshowe is a great place to pop in for a relaxing Zulu Blonde Export Ale, a beer that has won awards and rave reviews internationally. While you’re sitting at The Happy George Bar, ask around for recommendations on what’s new to do in the area.

The Dlinza and Ongoye Forests are serious birding hotspots and both are easily accessible. In fact, the Dlinza aerial boardwalk is something that even non-birders will enjoy and appreciate.

Isandlwana and Rorke’s Drift are the two seminal battlefields in the Battlefields tour and are both intensely fascinating and moving. A good guide is invaluable in bringing them to life. Ulundi and Blood River are also well worth visiting, giving different insights into the bloodshed that shaped this land.

Take a hike up Majuba or Spioenkop mountains, both of which offer sensational views in addition to stirring battlefield history. The historic O’Neills cottage, where a peace treaty was signed to end the first Anglo-War, lies at the base of Majuba.

The majestic Ithala Game Reserve in the very north of KwaZulu-Natal offers good game-viewing and bird-watching, as well as epic scenery of mountains and valleys. While there is a variety of accommodation, the pick of it is undoubtedly the bush camps that can be booked out for your group.

Every year the Zulu nation holds the Reed Ceremony near the eNyokeni Royal residence in Nongoma north of Melmoth, thousands of maidens gathering to pay their respect to their king. This happens in spring and visitors from all over the world come to watch the women dance and sing to King Goodwill Zwelithini in his ceremonial regalia.

The eMakhosini Ophate Heritage Park should not be missed by anyone with a sense of history. It is the birthplace of the Zulu clan and what is known as the Valley of the Kings. The Spirit of eMakhosini memorial and an educational multimedia centre are worth a visit, and there is also game, including the rare oribi antelope and black rhino.

Immerse yourself in the Zulu culture at a place like Shakaland and watch Zulu dancing, ask a sangoma (witch doctor) for his sage advice, sample traditional Zulu beer, listen to singing and perhaps try out a few simple phrases for yourself. Arts and crafts are also on sale and make wonderful gifts and souvenirs.

When to go

To Do

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